Major Volcanoes in the world

Volcanic activity

Mama or molten rock is formed beneath the ground surface due to various reasons. This molten rock ruptures the ground and pours out. Sometimes, it cools down beneath the ground surface instead of pouring out. These activities are known as Volcanic Activitites.

Volcanic Eruptions

The pouring out of the magma or molten rock through ground surface is called a volcanic eruption. At the time of eruption, the magma, steam, fragments of rock, dust and gaseous substances are ejected with great force from under the ground surface through a pipe like passage. The opening of this pipe on the earth’s surface is known as the vent which forms a crater. The lava which is thrown into the sky during an eruption, falls to the ground in the form of solid fragments. Dark clouds gather in the sky and it begins to rain heavily. The volcanic ash and dust mixes with the rainwater giving rise to hot mud flows.

Types of Volcanic Eruptions

  1. Central eruption
    • This type of eruption gives rise to conical or dome-shaped hills. It is basically poured acidic lava.
    • Example : Mt. Kilimanjaro (Africa), Fujiyama (Japan) & Vesuvius (Italy) & Mt. Etna (Italy)
  2. Fissure eruption
    • These eruption take place at a very slow speed. Since this lava is more fluid, it spreads over longer distances. The lava cools down on the ground over a period of time, increasing the thickness of the surface in that area. Basalt plateaus are formed due to these eruptions.
    • Basalt plateaus are also found in Brazil in South America and Saudi Arabia in West Asia and Deccan plateau in India.
    • In Maharashtra, the fertile black regur soil has been formed from basalt rocks. It is known as Black Cotton Soil.

The opening of exploded volcano has different types

  • Crater
    • Crater lake – Loner Lake (Buldhana, Maharastra, India)
    • Nested craters – Three small craters of Mountains (Philippines)
  • Caldera
    • Mt. Aso (Japan), Toba Caldera (Sumatra island, Indonesia)

Majorly there are 3 types of Volcanoes are present :

  1. Active Volcanoes
    • Etna (Italy) and Stromoboli (Italy), Cotopaxi (Ecuador), Mt. Erebus (Antarctica) & Barren Island (Andaman & Nicobar – India)
    • Stromoboli (Italy) is the Light house of the Mediterranean.
    • Cotopaxi (Ecuador) – World’s highest active volcano.
    • Mt. Erebus (Antarctica) – the only active volcano in the Antarctica continent.
  2. Dormant Volcanoes
    • Example : Vesuvius (Italy), Fujiyama (Japan), Krakatao (Indonesia), and Dormant valconoes in the Narcondam Island (now believed to the active after Tsunami of December 2004) (Andaman & Nicobar – India)
  3. Extinct Volcanoes (Dead Volcanoes)
    • Example : Mt. Kenya (Kenya), Mt. Kilimanjaro (Africa), Chimborazo (Ecuador), Popa (Myanmar), Damavand (Iran), Koh-i-sultan(Pakistan), & Aconcagua (Andes mountains)

Major Volcanoes in the world

Sl. No.VolcanoCountry
1Ojos del SaladoArgentina-Chile
5Mauna LoaHawaii Island
6Mt. CameroonCameroon (Central Africa)
7Mt. ErebusRoss Island (Antarctica)
8Mt. EtnaSisily (Italy)
9Mt. PeleeMartinique Island (France)
11Mt. VesuviusGulf of Neples, Compnia (Italy)
12StromboliStromboli Island, Sisily (Italy)
14Mt. KatmaiAlaska (US)
15Mt. RainierWashington (US)
16Mt. ShastaCalifornia (US)
17Mt. FujiorFuji-San (Fujiyama)Japan
18TaalLuzon Island, Philippines
19Mt. PinatuboPhilippines
20Mt. MayonLuzon Island, Philippines
22Koh-i-SultanBalochistan (Pakistan)
23Mt. Popa or Popa HillMyanmar
24Mt. ElbrusRussia
26Mt. KenyaKenya

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